What is crowdsourcing?
Crowdsourcing has a group of diverse individuals attempt to solve all or part of a problem, then share or implement solutions. This could take the form of an open call, a designathon, a co-creation group, or a related participatory activity. Our team has used crowdsourcing approaches to engage local communities, inform policy, and develop health interventions. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that crowdsourcing can make health services more equitable and effective.
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Crowdsourcing in Health and Health Research: A Practical Guide

Crowdsourcing Creative Contributory Contests

Creative Contributory Contests (CCCs) are a form of crowdsourcing that focuses on encouraging individual participation and transforming creative knowledge into public goods. CCCs can often create fresh perspectives in advocacy or service delivery, image and accessory design, and the development of mobile apps or other technologies. Organizing a call for ideas competition requires careful consideration of target groups, call-to-action methods, incentive distribution, multi-sectoral sourcing of judges and organizers, on-site outreach activities, and mechanisms for maintaining participation.

Design Innovation Marathon

"Design marathons are similar to programming marathons in that they both drive innovation in a very short period of time. The difference is that
design marathons focus on generating design to proceed rather than technology to proceed"

  -- Professor Joe Tucker, speaking at the end of the Guangzhou Design Innovation Marathon, June 2016
This overview provides a range of practical advice on how to design challenge competition rewards, incentivize participation, and achieve social impact.
The article provides some reference for actions to design a challenge competition to reach social goals and is not limited to the health field.
The site is part of the official U.S. government website and offers advice on organizing public sector awards, hackathons, crowdsourcing events and related actions.
This primer examines the power of group wisdom in a variety of contexts and is a classic introduction focusing on the business of the general field.